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dhfr IRN

Resistance to antifolates in Plasmodium falciparum monitored by sequence analysis of dihydropteroate synthetase and dihydrofolate reductase alleles in a large number of field samples of diverse origins

by Wang P, Lee CS, Bayoumi R, Djimde A, Doumbo O, Swedberg G, Dao LD, Mshinda H, Tanner M, Watkins WM, Sims P, Hyde JE

Published in 1997

Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to antifolate chemotherapy is a significant problem where combinations such as Fansidar (pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine; PYR-SDX) are used in the treatment of chloroquine-resistant malaria. Antifolate resistance has been associated with variant sequences of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthetase (DHPS), the targets of PYR and SDX respectively. However, while the nature and distribution of mutations in the dhfr gene are well established, this is not yet the case for dhps. We have thus examined by DNA sequence analysis 141 field samples from several geographical regions with differing Fansidar usage (West and East Africa, the Middle East and Viet Nam) to establish a database of the frequency and repertoire of dhps mutations, which were found in 60% of the samples. We have also simultaneously determined from all samples their dhfr sequences, to better understand the relationship of both types of mutation to Fansidar resistance. Whilst the distribution of mutations was quite different across the regions surveyed, it broadly mirrored our understanding of relative Fansidar usage. In samples taken from individual patients before and after drug treatment, we found an association between the more highly mutated forms of dhps and/or dhfr and parasites that were not cleared by antifolate therapy. We also report a novel mutation in a Pakistani sample at position 16 of DHFR (A16S) that is combined with the familiar C59R mutation, but is wild-type at position 108. This is the first observation in a field sample of a mutant dhfr allele where the 108 codon is unchanged.

Resistance to antifolates in Plasmodium falciparum monitored by sequence analysis of dihydropteroate synthetase and dihydrofolate reductase alleles in a large number of field samples of diverse origins

by Wang P, Lee CS, Bayoumi R, Djimde A, Doumbo O, Swedberg G, Dao LD, Mshinda H, Tanner M, Watkins WM, Sims P, Hyde JE

Published in 1997

Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to antifolate chemotherapy is a significant problem where combinations such as Fansidar (pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine; PYR-SDX) are used in the treatment of chloroquine-resistant malaria. Antifolate resistance has been associated with variant sequences of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthetase (DHPS), the targets of PYR and SDX respectively. However, while the nature and distribution of mutations in the dhfr gene are well established, this is not yet the case for dhps. We have thus examined by DNA sequence analysis 141 field samples from several geographical regions with differing Fansidar usage (West and East Africa, the Middle East and Viet Nam) to establish a database of the frequency and repertoire of dhps mutations, which were found in 60% of the samples. We have also simultaneously determined from all samples their dhfr sequences, to better understand the relationship of both types of mutation to Fansidar resistance. Whilst the distribution of mutations was quite different across the regions surveyed, it broadly mirrored our understanding of relative Fansidar usage. In samples taken from individual patients before and after drug treatment, we found an association between the more highly mutated forms of dhps and/or dhfr and parasites that were not cleared by antifolate therapy. We also report a novel mutation in a Pakistani sample at position 16 of DHFR (A16S) that is combined with the familiar C59R mutation, but is wild-type at position 108. This is the first observation in a field sample of a mutant dhfr allele where the 108 codon is unchanged.

Resistance to antifolates in Plasmodium falciparum monitored by sequence analysis of dihydropteroate synthetase and dihydrofolate reductase alleles in a large number of field samples of diverse origins

by Wang P, Lee CS, Bayoumi R, Djimde A, Doumbo O, Swedberg G, Dao LD, Mshinda H, Tanner M, Watkins WM, Sims P, Hyde JE

Published in 1997

Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to antifolate chemotherapy is a significant problem where combinations such as Fansidar (pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine; PYR-SDX) are used in the treatment of chloroquine-resistant malaria. Antifolate resistance has been associated with variant sequences of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthetase (DHPS), the targets of PYR and SDX respectively. However, while the nature and distribution of mutations in the dhfr gene are well established, this is not yet the case for dhps. We have thus examined by DNA sequence analysis 141 field samples from several geographical regions with differing Fansidar usage (West and East Africa, the Middle East and Viet Nam) to establish a database of the frequency and repertoire of dhps mutations, which were found in 60% of the samples. We have also simultaneously determined from all samples their dhfr sequences, to better understand the relationship of both types of mutation to Fansidar resistance. Whilst the distribution of mutations was quite different across the regions surveyed, it broadly mirrored our understanding of relative Fansidar usage. In samples taken from individual patients before and after drug treatment, we found an association between the more highly mutated forms of dhps and/or dhfr and parasites that were not cleared by antifolate therapy. We also report a novel mutation in a Pakistani sample at position 16 of DHFR (A16S) that is combined with the familiar C59R mutation, but is wild-type at position 108. This is the first observation in a field sample of a mutant dhfr allele where the 108 codon is unchanged.

Resistance to antifolates in Plasmodium falciparum monitored by sequence analysis of dihydropteroate synthetase and dihydrofolate reductase alleles in a large number of field samples of diverse origins

by Wang P, Lee CS, Bayoumi R, Djimde A, Doumbo O, Swedberg G, Dao LD, Mshinda H, Tanner M, Watkins WM, Sims P, Hyde JE

Published in 1997

Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to antifolate chemotherapy is a significant problem where combinations such as Fansidar (pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine; PYR-SDX) are used in the treatment of chloroquine-resistant malaria. Antifolate resistance has been associated with variant sequences of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthetase (DHPS), the targets of PYR and SDX respectively. However, while the nature and distribution of mutations in the dhfr gene are well established, this is not yet the case for dhps. We have thus examined by DNA sequence analysis 141 field samples from several geographical regions with differing Fansidar usage (West and East Africa, the Middle East and Viet Nam) to establish a database of the frequency and repertoire of dhps mutations, which were found in 60% of the samples. We have also simultaneously determined from all samples their dhfr sequences, to better understand the relationship of both types of mutation to Fansidar resistance. Whilst the distribution of mutations was quite different across the regions surveyed, it broadly mirrored our understanding of relative Fansidar usage. In samples taken from individual patients before and after drug treatment, we found an association between the more highly mutated forms of dhps and/or dhfr and parasites that were not cleared by antifolate therapy. We also report a novel mutation in a Pakistani sample at position 16 of DHFR (A16S) that is combined with the familiar C59R mutation, but is wild-type at position 108. This is the first observation in a field sample of a mutant dhfr allele where the 108 codon is unchanged.

Resistance to antifolates in Plasmodium falciparum monitored by sequence analysis of dihydropteroate synthetase and dihydrofolate reductase alleles in a large number of field samples of diverse origins

by Wang P, Lee CS, Bayoumi R, Djimde A, Doumbo O, Swedberg G, Dao LD, Mshinda H, Tanner M, Watkins WM, Sims P, Hyde JE

Published in 1997

Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to antifolate chemotherapy is a significant problem where combinations such as Fansidar (pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine; PYR-SDX) are used in the treatment of chloroquine-resistant malaria. Antifolate resistance has been associated with variant sequences of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthetase (DHPS), the targets of PYR and SDX respectively. However, while the nature and distribution of mutations in the dhfr gene are well established, this is not yet the case for dhps. We have thus examined by DNA sequence analysis 141 field samples from several geographical regions with differing Fansidar usage (West and East Africa, the Middle East and Viet Nam) to establish a database of the frequency and repertoire of dhps mutations, which were found in 60% of the samples. We have also simultaneously determined from all samples their dhfr sequences, to better understand the relationship of both types of mutation to Fansidar resistance. Whilst the distribution of mutations was quite different across the regions surveyed, it broadly mirrored our understanding of relative Fansidar usage. In samples taken from individual patients before and after drug treatment, we found an association between the more highly mutated forms of dhps and/or dhfr and parasites that were not cleared by antifolate therapy. We also report a novel mutation in a Pakistani sample at position 16 of DHFR (A16S) that is combined with the familiar C59R mutation, but is wild-type at position 108. This is the first observation in a field sample of a mutant dhfr allele where the 108 codon is unchanged.

Resistance to antifolates in Plasmodium falciparum monitored by sequence analysis of dihydropteroate synthetase and dihydrofolate reductase alleles in a large number of field samples of diverse origins

by Wang P, Lee CS, Bayoumi R, Djimde A, Doumbo O, Swedberg G, Dao LD, Mshinda H, Tanner M, Watkins WM, Sims P, Hyde JE

Published in 1997

Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to antifolate chemotherapy is a significant problem where combinations such as Fansidar (pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine; PYR-SDX) are used in the treatment of chloroquine-resistant malaria. Antifolate resistance has been associated with variant sequences of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthetase (DHPS), the targets of PYR and SDX respectively. However, while the nature and distribution of mutations in the dhfr gene are well established, this is not yet the case for dhps. We have thus examined by DNA sequence analysis 141 field samples from several geographical regions with differing Fansidar usage (West and East Africa, the Middle East and Viet Nam) to establish a database of the frequency and repertoire of dhps mutations, which were found in 60% of the samples. We have also simultaneously determined from all samples their dhfr sequences, to better understand the relationship of both types of mutation to Fansidar resistance. Whilst the distribution of mutations was quite different across the regions surveyed, it broadly mirrored our understanding of relative Fansidar usage. In samples taken from individual patients before and after drug treatment, we found an association between the more highly mutated forms of dhps and/or dhfr and parasites that were not cleared by antifolate therapy. We also report a novel mutation in a Pakistani sample at position 16 of DHFR (A16S) that is combined with the familiar C59R mutation, but is wild-type at position 108. This is the first observation in a field sample of a mutant dhfr allele where the 108 codon is unchanged.

High prevalence of mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase gene of Plasmodium falciparum in isolates from Tanzania without evidence of an association to clinical sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine resistance

by Jelinek T, Ronn AM, Curtis J, Duraisingh MT, Lemnge M M, Mhina J, Bygbjerg IC, Warhurst DC

Published in 1997

Recently the efficacy of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (S/P) in treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Tanzania has been seriously compromised by the development of resistance. The occurrence of active site mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum gene sequence coding for dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is known to confer resistance to pyrimethamine. This study investigates the occurrence of these mutations in infected blood samples taken from Tanzanian children before treatment with S/P and their relationship to parasite breakthrough by day 7. The results confirm the occurrence of one or more DHFR mutations in all the samples, but no relationship was found with the presence of parasites in the blood at day 7. The results suggest that alterations in the coding region for dihydropteroate synthetase (DHPS), the enzyme target for sulfadoxine, should be studied in order to predict resistance to the S/P combination. It has been proposed earlier that sulfadoxine could itself act on DHFR, because of a false dihydrofolate produced by drug metabolism through DHPS and dihydrofolate synthase. The results of this treatment study suggest that such a possibility is unlikely.

High prevalence of mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase gene of Plasmodium falciparum in isolates from Tanzania without evidence of an association to clinical sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine resistance

by Jelinek T, Ronn AM, Curtis J, Duraisingh MT, Lemnge M M, Mhina J, Bygbjerg IC, Warhurst DC

Published in 1997

Recently the efficacy of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (S/P) in treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Tanzania has been seriously compromised by the development of resistance. The occurrence of active site mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum gene sequence coding for dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is known to confer resistance to pyrimethamine. This study investigates the occurrence of these mutations in infected blood samples taken from Tanzanian children before treatment with S/P and their relationship to parasite breakthrough by day 7. The results confirm the occurrence of one or more DHFR mutations in all the samples, but no relationship was found with the presence of parasites in the blood at day 7. The results suggest that alterations in the coding region for dihydropteroate synthetase (DHPS), the enzyme target for sulfadoxine, should be studied in order to predict resistance to the S/P combination. It has been proposed earlier that sulfadoxine could itself act on DHFR, because of a false dihydrofolate produced by drug metabolism through DHPS and dihydrofolate synthase. The results of this treatment study suggest that such a possibility is unlikely.

High prevalence of mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase gene of Plasmodium falciparum in isolates from Tanzania without evidence of an association to clinical sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine resistance

by Jelinek T, Ronn AM, Curtis J, Duraisingh MT, Lemnge M M, Mhina J, Bygbjerg IC, Warhurst DC

Published in 1997

Recently the efficacy of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (S/P) in treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Tanzania has been seriously compromised by the development of resistance. The occurrence of active site mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum gene sequence coding for dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is known to confer resistance to pyrimethamine. This study investigates the occurrence of these mutations in infected blood samples taken from Tanzanian children before treatment with S/P and their relationship to parasite breakthrough by day 7. The results confirm the occurrence of one or more DHFR mutations in all the samples, but no relationship was found with the presence of parasites in the blood at day 7. The results suggest that alterations in the coding region for dihydropteroate synthetase (DHPS), the enzyme target for sulfadoxine, should be studied in order to predict resistance to the S/P combination. It has been proposed earlier that sulfadoxine could itself act on DHFR, because of a false dihydrofolate produced by drug metabolism through DHPS and dihydrofolate synthase. The results of this treatment study suggest that such a possibility is unlikely.

High prevalence of mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase gene of Plasmodium falciparum in isolates from Tanzania without evidence of an association to clinical sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine resistance

by Jelinek T, Ronn AM, Curtis J, Duraisingh MT, Lemnge M M, Mhina J, Bygbjerg IC, Warhurst DC

Published in 1997

Recently the efficacy of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (S/P) in treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Tanzania has been seriously compromised by the development of resistance. The occurrence of active site mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum gene sequence coding for dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is known to confer resistance to pyrimethamine. This study investigates the occurrence of these mutations in infected blood samples taken from Tanzanian children before treatment with S/P and their relationship to parasite breakthrough by day 7. The results confirm the occurrence of one or more DHFR mutations in all the samples, but no relationship was found with the presence of parasites in the blood at day 7. The results suggest that alterations in the coding region for dihydropteroate synthetase (DHPS), the enzyme target for sulfadoxine, should be studied in order to predict resistance to the S/P combination. It has been proposed earlier that sulfadoxine could itself act on DHFR, because of a false dihydrofolate produced by drug metabolism through DHPS and dihydrofolate synthase. The results of this treatment study suggest that such a possibility is unlikely.

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